Ast T, Aviram N, Chuartzman SG, Schuldiner M
J Cell Sci. 2014 Jul 15;127(Pt 14):3017-2
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) identifies and disposes of misfolded secretory pathway proteins through the actions of ER-associated degradation(ERAD) pathways. It is becoming evident that a substantial fraction of the secretome transiently resides in the cytosol before translocating into the ER, both in yeast and in higher eukaryotes. To uncover factors that monitor this transient cytosolic protein pool, we carried out a genetic screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our findings highlighted a pre-insertional degradation mechanism at the cytosolic leaflet of the ER, which we termprERAD. prERAD relies on the concurrent action of the ER-localized ubiquitylation and deubiquitylation machineries Doa10 and Ubp1. By recognizing C-terminal hydrophobic motifs, prERAD tags for degradation pre-inserted proteins that have remained on the cytosolic leaflet of the ER for too long. Our discoveries delineate a new cellular safeguard, which ensures that every stage of secretory pathway protein biogenesis is scrutinized and regulated.