Costa WS, Liewald J, Gottschalk A

Methods Mol Biol. New York, NY: Springer New York; 2014;1148(Chapter 11):161–75

In recent years, optogenetic methods became invaluable tools, particularly in neurobiological research. Most prominently, optogenetic methods utilize microbial rhodopsins to elicit neuronal de- or hyperpolarization. However, other optogenetic tools have emerged that allow influencing neuronalfunction by different approaches. In this chapter we describe the use of photoactivated adenylyl cyclases (PACs) as modulators of neuronal activity. Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism, this chapter shows how to measure the effect of PAC photoactivation by behavioral and electrophysiological assays, as well as their significance to neurobiology.